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Unitised Curtain Walling

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Unitised curtain walling is a popular architectural solution that has revolutionised the construction industry. In this article, we will explore what unitised curtain walling is and how it differs from stick curtain walling.

We will delve into the pre-fabrication process, installation methods, and the time and cost efficiency of unitised curtain walling compared to traditional methods. We will discuss the components of unitised curtain walling, including glass panels, aluminium frames, insulation materials, and sealants.

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We will highlight the advantages of unitised curtain walling, such as its faster installation process, improved quality control, reduced on-site labour, and better thermal performance. Conversely, we will also address the potential disadvantages, including the higher initial cost, limited design flexibility, and challenges associated with repair and replacement.

We will explore the diverse applications of unitised curtain walling in commercial buildings, high-rise structures, and institutional projects.

Whether you are a construction professional or simply curious about innovative building technologies, this comprehensive guide will provide valuable insights into the world of unitised curtain walling.

What Is Unitised Curtain Walling?

Unitised curtain walling is a building facade system that is commonly used in modern construction projects to create impressive glass facades and enhance the overall architectural design.

It involves the prefabrication of individual units in a controlled factory environment, which are then transported to the construction site for assembly.

This method ensures high-quality and efficient installation, reducing on-site construction time and labour costs.

The significance of unitised curtain walling lies in its ability to provide buildings with a sleek, contemporary look while offering excellent thermal and sound insulation. By seamlessly integrating glass panels and support structures, it contributes to the sustainability and aesthetic appeal of architectural designs.

How is unitised curtain walling different from stick curtain walling?

When it comes to modern construction, the choice between unitised and stick curtain walling plays a crucial role in determining the efficiency and aesthetics of a building’s facade.

Unitised curtain walling is characterised by its modular construction, where large sections of the system are fabricated off-site and then transported and hoisted into place on the building structure, allowing for quicker installation and reduced on-site labour.

In contrast, stick curtain walling involves the on-site assembly of aluminium framing and glass panels piece by piece, requiring more time and labour-intensive work.

The efficiency of facade installation is a key distinction between the two, with unitised systems offering faster installation and reduced disruption to other on-site activities.


The pre-fabrication process in unitised curtain walling involves the creation of modular panels off-site, contributing to efficient facade installation and addressing the evolving needs of the construction industry.

This construction method allows for the fabrication of panels in a controlled environment, ensuring precision and quality. The modular panels are tailored to specific project requirements and can include features such as glazing, insulation, and ventilation systems.

Once completed, these panels are transported to the construction site and assembled, significantly reducing on-site labour and time. This streamlined process not only improves project timelines but also enhances safety by minimising work at height during installation.

Installation Process

Unitised curtain walling is a prefabricated structure that is installed onto the facade of a building. It offers a seamless and efficient installation process, reducing on-site construction time and disruption.

Aligning with facade system standards, unitised curtain walling ensures a consistent and high-quality finish, enhancing the building’s aesthetic appeal.

Compliance with construction codes is crucial in ensuring the safety and structural integrity of the installation.

Facade engineering plays a vital role in the design and implementation, integrating elements such as thermal performance, moisture management and structural support to optimise the functionality and longevity of the curtain wall system.

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Time and Cost Efficiency

Unitised curtain walling offers significant time and cost efficiency benefits, streamlining project management processes and leveraging advanced facade technology to optimise construction expenditure.

Incorporating unitised curtain walling into a construction project reduces the overall installation time, as the manufacturing and assembly of the unitised panels can be carried out off-site concurrently with other construction activities.

This not only accelerates the project timeline but also minimises disruptions on-site, enhancing project management efficiency.

The integration of advanced facade technology, such as energy-efficient glazing and sustainable materials, further contributes to cost savings and environmental benefits, aligning with the contemporary focus on sustainable building practices.

What Are The Components Of Unitised Curtain Walling?

The components of unitised curtain walling include:

Each plays a crucial role in ensuring the structural integrity and energy efficiency of the facade system.

The glass panels not only allow natural light to penetrate the building, contributing to a well-lit interior, but also provide unobstructed views for occupants. Meanwhile, the aluminium frames offer robust support, creating a durable framework for the entire system.

Insulation materials are vital for thermal performance, reducing heat loss and improving energy efficiency. Sealants act as a barrier against moisture and air infiltration, enhancing the building’s weather resistance and sustainability.

These components work in harmony to create a sleek, modern exterior that enhances the overall aesthetics of the structure.

Glass Panels

Glass panels in unitised curtain walling systems offer a seamless blend of structural glazing, aesthetic appeal, and considerations for facade maintenance, contributing to the overall elegance and functionality of the building facade.

These panels play a crucial role in providing structural integrity to the building whilst allowing natural light to permeate the interior, creating a welcoming and visually pleasing environment.

The use of glass panels allows for highly customisable designs, enabling architects to incorporate innovative patterns or textures, thus enhancing the visual impact of the building.

In terms of maintenance, the choice of durable, low-maintenance glass materials can significantly reduce the long-term upkeep costs for the facade, making it an efficient and practical choice for building exteriors.

Aluminium Frames

The utilisation of aluminium frames in unitised curtain walling enhances wind resistance, facilitates facade refurbishment, and simplifies facade repair processes, providing long-term durability and ease of maintenance.

Their use in unitised systems enables the structures to withstand strong wind forces, ensuring the stability and safety of buildings. The lightweight nature of aluminium makes it a practical choice for facade refurbishment, allowing for easier handling and installation.

The inherent corrosion resistance of aluminium contributes to simplified facade repair processes, reducing the need for extensive maintenance and ensuring the longevity of the building’s exterior. These factors combined position aluminium frames as a key element in modern facade design and maintenance.

Insulation Materials

Insulation materials in unitised curtain wall systems play a pivotal role in enhancing thermal performance, driving facade innovation, and integrating advanced facade technologies for sustainable building design.

They enable the building envelope to effectively regulate heat transfer, reducing energy consumption and enhancing interior comfort. In driving facade innovation, these materials allow for the development of more efficient and aesthetically pleasing designs.

Their integration with advanced facade technologies such as smart glazing and ventilation systems further optimises the building’s energy efficiency and overall performance.

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The use of sealants in unitised curtain walling ensures effective weatherproofing, contributes to facade preservation, and provides essential protection against environmental elements, enhancing the longevity and durability of building facades.

These sealants play a crucial role in preventing water and air infiltration, which can lead to structural damage and degradation of building materials. By sealing off gaps and joints, they act as a barrier, safeguarding the facade against harsh weather conditions and ensuring the interior of the building remains dry and insulated.

Sealants aid in preserving the aesthetics of the facade by preventing discolouration, corrosion, and erosion caused by exposure to UV rays, pollutants, and other environmental factors. Their flexibility and adhesion properties allow them to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction, thereby maintaining the integrity of the unitised curtain wall system over time.

Benefits of Unitised Curtain Walls

Unitised curtain walls offer numerous advantages, including a faster installation process, enhanced quality control, and sustainable solutions that align with modern architectural and construction practices.

This innovative approach to curtain walling allows for modular units to be prefabricated off-site, streamlining the installation process and significantly reducing on-site construction time.

The factory-controlled manufacturing environment ensures higher quality standards as each unit undergoes rigorous testing before installation.

The use of sustainable materials and efficient design principles in unitised curtain walling supports environmental goals, making it a preferred choice for eco-conscious building projects.

Quicker Installation Process

The faster installation process of unitised curtain walls not only saves time but also promotes energy efficiency and incorporates advanced facade engineering and technologies for enhanced performance.

This streamlined installation method not only speeds up the entire process but also reduces the overall energy consumption of buildings.

The use of unitised curtain walls allows for precise integration of advanced facade technologies, such as high-performance glazing and efficient insulation, contributing to improved thermal performance and reduced heat loss.

The incorporation of innovative facade engineering techniques ensures a seamless and durable building envelope, further enhancing the overall energy efficiency and sustainability of structures.

Enhanced Quality Assurance

Unitised curtain walls ensures improved quality control, resulting in enhanced structural integrity, simplified facade maintenance, and streamlined facade refurbishment processes, contributing to long-term reliability.

This enhanced quality control in unitised curtain wall systems plays a crucial role in ensuring that the building’s structure remains stable and durable over time. It also simplifies facade maintenance, making it easier for building owners and managers to address any issues promptly.

The streamlined facade refurbishment processes save time and resources by enabling efficient repairs and updates to the building’s exterior. These factors collectively contribute to the long-term reliability of the entire facade system.

Reduced On-site Labour

The utilisation of unitised curtain walling leads to reduced on-site labour, streamlining processes for facade renovation, facilitating facade retrofit projects, and enhancing overall protection for building exteriors.

This reduction in on-site labour significantly cuts down installation time while ensuring high precision and quality in the facade renovation process. It also minimises the disruption to building occupants and surrounding areas during retrofit projects.

The minimised labour requirement contributes to a more cost-effective and efficient renovation, offering long-term protection and durability to the building facade. These factors underscore the crucial impact of reduced on-site labour in unitised systems on the success of facade renovation and retrofit projects.

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Improved Thermal Efficiency

The unitised system exhibits better thermal performance, complemented by enhanced wind resistance, the integration of advanced facade technology, and the potential for building facade modernisation to meet evolving energy efficiency standards.

This translates into an improved indoor temperature control, reduced energy consumption, and lower operational costs for building owners. The advanced facade technology also allows for a more sophisticated design flexibility, creating visually appealing modern structures that comply with the latest architectural trends

. The use of high-performance materials and construction techniques contributes to a sustainable building environment, aligning with the growing focus on eco-friendly and energy-efficient construction practices.

What Are The Disadvantages Of Unitised Curtain Walls?

Unitised curtain walls offer a sleek and modern aesthetic to buildings and is a popular choice in architectural design.

It is important to consider the potential drawbacks of unitised curtain walls. One of the main disadvantages is the higher initial cost associated with its installation and manufacturing. Unitised systems may have limitations in design flexibility, making it challenging to achieve unique and intricate architectural features.

Another factor to consider is the complexities related to facade inspection and maintenance, as the unitised panels can be more challenging to access and maintain compared to traditional curtain wall systems.

Higher Initial Cost

Unitised curtain walls entail a higher initial cost, attributable to premium faƧade materials, long-term faƧade refurbishment considerations, and the potential for extensive faƧade restoration, impacting overall project expenditure.

This higher initial cost is often balanced by the significant benefits in terms of energy efficiency, durability, and overall architectural appeal. Premium faƧade materials, such as high-performance glass and advanced aluminium framing, not only contribute to the initial cost but also result in long-term savings through improved thermal performance and reduced maintenance needs.

Considering faƧade refurbishment early in the design phase allows for proactive planning, potentially lowering future renovation expenses and ensuring the longevity of the building faƧade. The potential for extensive faƧade restoration, although initially costly, can ultimately preserve the building’s aesthetic and functional integrity, further justifying the higher upfront expenditure.

Limited Design Flexibility

Unitised curtain walls offer numerous benefits in construction projects, however it comes with limitations in design flexibility.

The standardised nature of unitised systems restricts the ability to create complex or custom designs, making it challenging for architects and designers to fully express their creative visions.

This necessitates the need for innovative facade technology solutions and the involvement of specialised facade engineers and professionals, who possess the expertise to overcome these limitations.

By leveraging their in-depth knowledge, these professionals can assist in developing tailored solutions that balance design aspirations with practical and efficient execution within the constraints of unitised curtain walls.

Difficulties In Repair And Replacement

Challenges arise in the repair and replacement of unitised curtain walling, necessitating the involvement of specialised facade consultants and maintenance professionals to address complexities related to facade repair and long-term maintenance.

This particular type of curtain wall system poses unique challenges due to its complex structure and the integration of various components. The repair and replacement of unitised curtain walling requires a comprehensive understanding of facades and their intricate mechanisms.

Specialised facade consultants and maintenance professionals play a crucial role in identifying and addressing issues such as sealant deterioration, structural integrity, and thermal performance.

Their expertise enables them to develop tailored maintenance plans and implement effective repair strategies, ensuring the longevity and performance of unitised curtain wall systems.

What Are The Applications Of Unitised Curtain Walling?

Unitised curtain walling finds diverse applications in commercial buildings, high-rise structures, and institutional facilities, requiring the expertise of facade engineers to ensure optimal performance and aesthetic integration.

The application of unitised curtain walling in commercial buildings offers a seamless and modern aesthetic whilst providing structural stability and energy efficiency. In high-rise structures, unitised curtain walling plays a pivotal role in achieving architectural grandeur whilst addressing the challenges of wind loads and thermal performance.

Similarly, in institutional facilities, such as educational or healthcare buildings, unitised systems delivers both functionality and design flexibility, meeting the specific requirements of these spaces.

Commercial Buildings

In commercial buildings, the implementation of unitised systems involves strategic facade installation, the engagement of skilled facade contractors, and a commitment to ongoing facade maintenance to preserve the building’s visual appeal and structural integrity.

This approach ensures that the facade system remains in optimal condition, meeting the specific design and performance requirements of the building. Skilled facade contractors play a crucial role in not only the initial installation but also in the ongoing maintenance tasks, such as inspections, cleaning, and repairs.

Regular maintenance not only sustains the aesthetic appeal of the building but also upholds its energy efficiency and weather resistance. Thus, a proactive approach to facade maintenance is essential for the longevity and performance of the unitised curtain wall system in commercial buildings.

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High-rise Buildings

Unitised systems play a crucial role in high-rise buildings, contributing to enhanced structural integrity, considerations for faƧade refurbishment, and the prioritisation of faƧade safety measures to meet stringent building codes and standards.

Its application in high-rise buildings is driven by the need for a seamless integration of architectural aesthetics with energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. With its modular design, the unitised system enables efficient installation and maintenance, facilitating timely refurbishment and addressing potential faƧade issues.

Prioritising faƧade safety measures involves employing high-quality materials and rigorous testing to ensure resilience against external forces and environmental factors, essential for the longevity and maintenance of modern high-rise structures.

Institutional Buildings

Institutional buildings leverage unitised systems, necessitating the involvement of advanced facade engineering and technology solutions to drive innovation and address the unique architectural and functional requirements of institutional structures.

This strategy is crucial in ensuring that institutional buildings not only meet the aesthetic demands but also fulfil the essential functions of these spaces. Advanced facade engineering and technology solutions play a pivotal role in integrating innovative design elements while ensuring energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.

The application of unitised curtain walls in institutional buildings requires a deep understanding of the specific needs and challenges posed by these structures, driving the need for continuous innovation in facade engineering and technology to meet these evolving demands.

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